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GLOSSARY

A

Ancillary input

An Ancillary input is a material input that is used by the unit process producing the product, but does not constitute part of the product 

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Appropriate enforcement agency
An Appropriate enforcement agency is an enforcement agency prescribed by the regulations under the Act for the purposes of enforcement of the Act or similar purposes.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application  
Authorised officer

An Authorised officer is a person who is authorised or appointed under the Act or other legislation for the purposes of enforcement of the Act, or similar purposes, such as an ‘authorised officer’, ‘environmental health officer’ or ‘inspector’.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Audit

An audit is a formal review of practices.

An internal audit is when a worker representing the business reviews on-site practices.

An external audit is when a customer or an independent organisation (an auditor from a nominated Certification Body) reviews the business practices.

 

From FRESHCARE FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY EDITION 4.1 – FACTSHEET REF1906
– https://www.freshcare.com.au/our-standards/

B

B

C

Clean

Clean means that an object or surface is clean to touch and free of extraneous visible matter and objectionable odour.

 

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Contaminant

Contaminant defines any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substances that may compromise food safety or suitability.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Contamination

Contamination means the introduction or occurrence of a contaminant in food.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Comparative assertion

Comparative assertion
environmental claim regarding the superiority or equivalence of one product versus a competing product that performs the same function.

Cysticercosis

Infection caused by the tapeworm, Taenia; the infection occurs when the tapeworm larvae enter the body and form cysticerci: these resemble cysts whose walls are retracted in one place to form heads; each head has suckers and sometimes hooks. The cysticercus develops from an oncosphere in any organ (frequently in muscles, brain, and eye) of its intermediate host, such as swine and cattle. After entering the definitive human host, the cysticercus protrudes from the cyst and the larva is transformed into an adult worm.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

D

D

E

Elementary flow

Elementary flow is defined by materials or energy entering/leaving a system that has not been previously or subsequently transformed by human intervention.

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Energy flow

Energy flow is the input or output from a unit process or product system quantified in energy units. The phrases energy input and energy output can also be used to specify the direction of energy flow.

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Environmental aspect

Environmental aspect means an element of an organisation’s activities, products or services that can interact with the environment.

 

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Equipment

Equipment means a machine, instrument, apparatus, utensil or appliance, other than a single-use item, used or intended to be used in or in connection with food handling and includes any equipment used or intended to be used to clean food premises or equipment.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Endemic disease

A disease occurring within a particular area.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

Epidemic

Outbreak of disease that affects a much
greater number of people than is usual for the locality
or that spreads to regions where it is ordinarily not present.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

F

Feedstock energy

Feedstock energy is the heat of combustion of a raw material input that is not used as an energy source to a product system, expressed in terms of higher heating value or lower heating value. Care is necessary to ensure that the energy content of raw materials is not counted twice.

 

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Food business

Food business means a business, enterprise or activity (other than primary food production) that involves –

  1. the handling of food intended for sale; or
  2. the sale of food;

regardless of whether the business, enterprise or activity concerned is of a commercial, charitable or community nature or whether it involves the handling or sale of food on one occasion only.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Food handler

Food handler means a person who directly engages in the handling of food, or who comes into contact with surfaces likely to come into contact with food, for a food business.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Food handling operation

Food handling operation means any activity involving the handling of food

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Food premises

Food premises means any premises including land, vehicles, parts of structures, tents, stalls and other temporary structures, boats, pontoons and any other place declared by the relevant authority to be premises under the Food Act kept or used for the handling of food for sale, regardless of whether those premises are owned by the proprietor, including premises used principally as a private dwelling, but does not mean food vending machines or vehicles used only to transport food.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Food Safety Standards

Food Safety Standards means the standards contained in Chapter 3 of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

G

G

H

HACCP

HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. It is a set of global guidelines for food safety used to analyse and prevent food safety hazards within a food business. Codex HACCP is an internationally recognised system for risk assessment of food safety.

HACCP Training

HACCP training is defined by SQF as an assessed course that is a minimum of two-days in duration, used extensively in a country, and delivered by a recognised institution. HACCP training can take different forms but in Australia one of the most common forms is  HACCP Principles & Applications, which meets the SQF definition for HACCP training, and meets requirements for SQF, BRC, Coles/CFMSR, Woolworths Supplier Excellence, Global GAP and FSSC 22000. 

For more details on QMS Audits’ HACCP Training and bookings

Handling

Handling of food includes the making, manufacturing, producing, collecting, extracting, processing, storing, transporting, delivering, preparing, treating, preserving, packing, cooking, thawing, serving or displaying of food.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Hazard

Hazard means a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect in humans.

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

A disorder that usually occurs when an infection, for example, from Escherichia coli O157H7, in the digestive system produces toxic substances that destroy red blood cells, causing kidney injury.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

I

Internal Auditor - Food Safety Training
Internal Auditor Training is the training required to become an Internal Auditor for your food business. Once this training is completed, you can be appointed by your business to complete internal audits of on-site practices. QMS Audits is a Recognised Training Organisation (RTO) that provides Internal Auditor – Food Safety training that has the nationally and internationally accredited units of competency required to become an internal auditor. Find more details on QMS Audits’ Internal Auditor – Food Safety Training and bookings
Immunocompromised

Having a weakened or impaired immune system.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

J

J

K

K

L

Lead Auditor - Food Safety Training
Lead Auditor – Food Safety Training is the training that is required to become an auditor responsible for managing an audit program. It is the first step to becoming a food safety auditor for a certification body or a state-approved auditor. Find more details on QMS Audits’ Lead Auditor – Food Safety Training and bookings
Life cycle

Life cycle of a product is the interlinked consecutive stages of the product system from initial acquisition of raw materials to the final disposal stage.


From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Life cycle assessment (LCA)
A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a summative evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of a product system based on outputs and inputs throughout its entire life cycle.

From ISO 14044:2006(E)
Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI)
Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) is the stage of an LCA that involves the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs for a product throughout its life cycle.

From ISO 14044:2006(E)
Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

Life cycle impact assessment
(LCIA)
is the stage of an LCA aimed to identify potential environmental impacts for a product system, and evaluate their magnitude and significance throughout the life cycle of the product.

 

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Life cycle interpretation
Life cycle interpretation is the stage of an LCA in which the findings of the inventory analysis and/or the impact assessment are evaluated in relation to the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and recommendations.

From ISO 14044:2006(E)

M

Mastitis

Inflammation of an animal’s udder, usually as a result of bacterial infection.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

N

N

N

O

Oocyst

A fertilized gamete of parasitic sporozoans that is enclosed in a thick wall resistant to the environment.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

 

P

Pests

Pests are defined as an insect or other animal that can be present on food premises causing a risk to food safety. This includes birds, rodents, insects and arachnids.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Primary food production

Primary food production is defined by production activities which include the growing, cultivation, picking, harvesting, collection or catching of food, and includes the following –

  1. the transportation or delivery of food on, from or between the premises on which the aforementioned production activities occur;
  2. the packing, treating (for example, washing) or storing of food on the premises on which the aforementioned production activities occur; and
  3. any other food production activity that is regulated by or under an Act prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

Primary food production does not include –

  1. any process involving the substantial transformation of food (for example, manufacturing or canning), regardless of whether the process is carried out on the same premises on which activities previously defined as primary food production occur; or
  2.  the sale or service of food directly to the public; or
  3.  any other food production activity prescribed by the regulations under the Act for the purposes of this definition.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Proprietor of a food business

The proprietor of a food business is defined as –

  1. the person carrying on the food business, or
  2. if that person cannot be identified – the person in charge of the food business.

 

From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application

Product

A product is defined as any goods or service, and can be categorised as follows:

  • services (e.g. transport);
  • software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);
  • hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part);
  • processed materials (e.g. lubricant);

Services have tangible and intangible elements. Services can involve, for example:

  • an activity performed on a customer-supplied tangible product (e.g. automobile to be repaired);
  • an activity performed on a customer-supplied intangible product (e.g. the income statement needed to prepare a tax return);
  • the delivery of an intangible product (e.g. the delivery of information in the context of knowledge transmission);
  • the creation of ambience for the customer (e.g. in hotels and restaurants).

Software consists of information and is generally intangible and can be in the form of approaches, transactions or procedures.

Hardware is generally tangible and its amount is a countable characteristic. Processed materials are generally tangible and their amount is a continuous characteristic.

 

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Co-product

A Co-product is any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system



From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Process

A process is a set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs


From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Pandemic

Worldwide epidemic, a global disease outbreak.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

Plasmapheresis

A process in which blood taken from a patient is treated to extract the cells and corpuscles, which are then added to another fluid and returned to the patient’s body.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

Q

Quality

Consistent production of good or service to a defined criteria, specification or expectation. In some cases, especially when dealing with consumers, the expectation may be inferred. Durability and fit for use are common expectations. 

R

Raw material

Raw material is defined as a primary or secondary material that is used to produce a product. A secondary material includes recycled materials.

From ISO 14044:2006(E) 

Ready To Eat Foods

Ready-to-eat (RTE) foods are intended to be consumed by the final consumer without any further process that may eliminate or reduce pathogenic microorganisms that could be present. 

From: Food Standards Code 3.2.2.

RTE

Ready To Eat Food

Retinochoroiditis

Inflammation of the retina and choroid (a brownish membrane between the retina and the white of the eye).

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

S

Sell

To sell means, in the context of a food business, to:

  1. barter, offer or attempt to sell; or
  2. receive for sale; or
  3. have in possession for sale; or
  4. display for sale; or
  5. cause or permit to be sold or offered for sale; or
  6. send, forward or deliver for sale; or
  7. dispose of by any method for valuable consideration; or
  8. dispose of to an agent for sale on consignment; or
  9. provide under a contract of service; or
  10. supply food as a meal or part of a meal to an employee, in accordance with a term of an award governing the employment of the employee or a term of the employee’s contract of service, for consumption by the employee at the employee’s place of work;
  11. dispose of by way of raffle, lottery or other game of chance; or
  12. offer as a prize or reward; or
  13. give away for the purpose of advertisement or in furtherance of trade or business; or
  14. supply food under a contract (whether or not the contract is made with the consumer of the food), together with accommodation, service or entertainment, in consideration of an inclusive charge for the food supplied and the accommodation, service or entertainment; or
  15. supply food (whether or not for consideration) in the course of providing services to patients or inmates in public institutions, where ‘public institution’ means ‘public institution’ as defined in the Act, if it is so defined; or
  16. sell for the purpose of resale.



From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Single-use

Single-use item means an instrument, apparatus, utensil or other thing intended by the manufacturer to only be used once in connection with food handling, and includes disposable gloves.


From Standard 3.1.1 Interpretation and application 

Septicemia

Illness with toxicity due to invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria coming from a local seat of infection (also known as blood poisoning).

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

Sequela

A disease or disorder that is caused by a preceding disease or injury in the same individual.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

T

Transparency

Transparency means open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information.


From ISO 14044:2006(E)

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Blood disorder that causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels around the body, and leads to a low platelet counts; these clots composed of platelets can block blood flow to the brain, leading to bleeding under the skin forming purple- colored spots called purpura.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

Toxicoinfection

Type of foodborne illness that occurs due to ingestion of a bacterium that produces toxins within the gut, which are absorbed to produce gastrointestinal symptoms.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier. 

U

U

V

Vehicles

Vehicles are defined as any means of transport of food including shopping trolleys.

W

W

X

X

Y

Y

Z

Zoonotic disease

An infectious disease that can be transmitted from wild and domestic animals to humans.

From Motarjemi, Y., 2013,  Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 1, Academic Press, available at Elsevier.